An investigation for owners of diesel Volkswagen 2016 VW Jetta, Beetle, Golf, and Passat was announced. In late September the U.S Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") issued a notice of violation of the Clean Air Act ("CAA") to automakers Volkswagen AG and Audi AG and Volkswagen Group of America ("VW")alleging that certain four-cylinder Volkswagen and Audi diesel cars from model years 2009-2015 include software that circumvents EPA emissions standards for certain air pollutants. Since then over 400 lawsuits by consumers were filed in the U.S. Initially it was reported that 11 million diesel cars from 2009 to 2015 could be affected. However, on October 14, 2015, it was reported that certain 2016 diesel models could be affected by an additional suspect software. The software at issue makes a pollution-control catalyst heat up faster, improving performance of the device that separates smog-causing nitrogen oxide into harmless nitrogen and oxygen gases.